General guidelines of patient preparation for bacteriology studies of biological material for idiosyncrasy to antibiotics

  1. Biological materials must be collected in sterile disposable containers designed for bacteriology tests. Do not wash sterile containers before use!
  2. Samples shall be collected is such a way as to prevent contamination of the material by normal microflora since the presence of indigenous organisms may result in an erroneous interpretation of results.
  3. Samples must be collected before the commencement of immunobiological or antifungal pharmaceutical (local or systemic) therapy.
  4. When monitoring therapy effectiveness, studies shall be performed 14 days after the termination of course of treatment.
  5. When collecting and transporting samples care shall be taken to prevent contamination of the container's exterior.
  6. Collected samples shall be delivered to the laboratory as soon as possible after sampling.

Certain specific requirements to tests:

Oropharyngeal cavity samples

  • Oropharyngeal cavity smears are performed on an empty stomach, three to four hours after eating.
  • General rules for the preparation to bacteriology studies shall be observed. Nasal samples
  • Do not flush nasal passages, use spays or nasal drugs before nasal sampling.

Ophtalmic samples

  • Six to eight hours prior to the sampling, administration of all pharmaceuticals and performance of procedures (both local and general) shall be suspended.
  • Do not wash eyes on the day of sampling. External ear material sampling
  • Six to eight hours prior to the sampling, administration of all pharmaceuticals and performance of procedures (both local and general) shall be suspended.


  • Sputum for the examination shall be collected in the morning. Quality sputum material is material which is mucous or mucopurulent in nature and which contains offwhite matter.
  • The quantity of sputum sufficient for examination is 3 to 5 ml.
  • Before expectorating sputum, the patient should brush their teeth and rinse mouth with boiled water.
  • If the patient does no produce sputum or produces it occasionally and sparsely, an irritating inhalation shall be performed.

Urine tests

  • For tests, midstream portion of free-flowing morning urine is used. The sample shall be collected into a sterile container in the volume of no less than 1 ml, following careful washing of external genital organs with warm water and soap. It is advised to refrain from urinating on the evening prior to the day of sampling.
  • It is also recommended to refrain from drinking alcoholic beverages and eating spicy and salty food before the day of sampling.
  • It is not recommended for women to collect urine samples during menstruation. Before the collection of a sample, it is advisable to insert a gynecological tampon into vagina.
  • Before collecting urine samples, wash external genital organs of nursing infants thoroughly; it is preferable to collect sample into a urine bag. Urine squeezed out of a disposable diaper is not a suitable sample. It is not recommended to use urine form a chamber pot.

Attention! Bacteriology studies of urine collected during a day is not allowed.